Traditional Lorrain Furniture - Napoli Antic - Conservation and Exhibition Furniture
STORAGE, CONSERVATION AND EXHIBITION FURNITURE "- The chests The chest is the oldest piece of furniture and the most common, from the Middle Ages in the 17th century, it is also mentioned in literary writings from the 13th century century. Very mobile, this piece of furniture, equipped with side handles, was very practical for transporting the most precious items during the difficult times in Lorraine. From the 16th to the 17th century, the chest was made from fir, then from oak. Robust furniture, with a lock, it has long been used to store linen and precious objects in an internal compartment, closed with a movable cover. It is located in the stove. It is found as well among the bourgeois as among the peasants. Among the poorest, it is sometimes the only piece of furniture, which serves as a table, a seat, or even a bunk, combining several functions. A distinction is made between chests with flat sides and chests with panels. The chests with flat sides are composed of four feet in which the boards of the sides fit. Personal belongings are stored there. A small box included inside is used to hide the most precious goods (jewelry, money ...). The decoration is very simple. The panel boxes are composed of several panels and the ornamentation is more present (interlacing, moldings, quatrefoils ...) The function of the safe is very varied, it is not limited to the storage of laundry or food.
There are archive chests, flour chests (burtoires), grain, milk, bread, salt chests (salt pans). These have a pyramidal shape and are often fitted with a drawer. They combine several functions as they also serve as seats. They are found in the kitchen near the hearth, which protects them from humidity. Thus, it is not uncommon to have several chests of various uses. The trunk will lose its importance as the interiors will expand and enrich. The cupboards will replace the chests which will end up in the attics. - Cabinets, sideboards and clocks: prestigious furniture in the 17th century century, the term cabinet is ambiguous. It designates very various vertical structures closed by two doors occupying the entire height. The wardrobe began to make its way into domestic interiors from the second half of the 17th century and competed with the almost ubiquitous chest. It is the symbol of peasant affluence in the 18th century, the reflection of wealth and the solidity of the home. Moreover, it is the only piece of furniture preserved from generation to generation. To escape the smoke, steam and grease of the kitchen, the perfectly maintained cupboard was in the stove, the room of pageantry par excellence. Its construction is classic: four posts angles, corner feet with grooves, in which the bottom, sides and crosspieces fit. The whole is fixed using tenons and dowel mortises. The cornice fits together like a more or less overflowing cover. The cabinet includes two symmetrical leaves. Generally, it has two drawers in the lower cross member. The use of oak, more resistant, more beautiful and easier to work but also more expensive became widespread in the 18th century. The tree continues to be used for the invisible parts. Over time, the cabinets lose their severe lines, the ornamentation is more elaborate. We see the appearance of the Regency, Louis XV, Louis XVI style. The feet arch, the chamfers soften the edges, the crossbars are loaded with sculptures, the decor is sometimes loaded with curves and counter-curves.
The drawers are spreading. In the 19th century, once the models had been established and adopted by the clientele, the craftsmen limited themselves to these decorations which would change very little. is mainly used to store dishes and incidentally to store some food. It is the other great piece of furniture in the house. In general, there are already in urban areas in the sixteenth century. It is then in oak or walnut. The buffet could be in the kitchen or the stove.
The Lorraine furniture includes several types of buffets: low buffets, two-section buffets, (these are two-part stacked furniture, the top of which is often set back), the flap buffet whose flap could be used service.
The buffet-dresser, improperly called dressoir, is one of the symbols of popular Lorraine furniture. From the 18th century, all homes had it, even in remote places. It consists of two parts: a low sideboard closed with leaves and an exhibition shelf where the most beautiful household crockery was displayed. It remained in use until the middle of the 19th century. The exhibition shelf is often made of stained fir and the shelves are fixed in a carpentry frame or supported by turned columns.
The ornamentation may include inlay. The dimensions of these buffets can be remarkable. The proportions of the upper and lower sections vary depending on the region. Like the cupboard or sideboards, the cupboard is used for storage, but it is irremovable because it is built into a wall. At first, it is not closed with doors. The presence of closed cupboards is confirmed in the 18th century. In the 19th century, it was widely used. The cupboard in the kitchen near the fireplace is used to receive food, cooled ashes, salt, the oil jug and household utensils. The heating cupboard, or woodwork of stove, is located in the room next to that of the hearth and placed on the back of this one. It has two levels closed by doors. The lower level opens onto the back of the fireback to bring in a little warmth. On the upper level, shelves are used to store clothes to dry, a pot filled with milk to raise the cream, fruits to dry (plums, plums). The heated cupboard is both a piece of furniture and a clever heating system. The heat is regulated by opening more or less the doors of the cupboard. - Grandfather clocks Very rare in rural areas until the 17th century, the grandfather clock is in the kitchen or the stove. "
Txt: Dossier enseignant/ L'âge d'or du mobilier Lorrain
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